8" tall ring gears and 28 or 31 spline axle shafts, no available with 34 spline shafts in the 2015 and newer "Super" 8. The numbers can be deceiving in that a high gear ratio has a low number, and a lower gear ratio has a higher number. Gear Ratio & Tire Size Chart. 2 wheelbase, 38. 25 bolt thru case rear end w/pinion support ford 8" trac lok posi 28 spline all ratios *ring gear bolts included* $299. We have the largest selection of Ford Explorer Rear Axle Assembly parts at discount prices. Save yourself the headache and let us figure out your ring-and-pinion gear ratio! Select the value you want to solve for. This chart applies to all Ford non-overdirve transmissions, manual and automatic. It is 248 on a Dana 60. Going by the chart any higher will make the 4x4 rev too much at highway speeds causing poor fuel economy. 73 gear ratio in a 7. The stock 3. Part reference information is taken from the 1975 Ford. 6-inch 10-bolt rears are stout and effective differentials that can handle more power than either the 7. heres a chart from. These gear sets are tough and they are made so that noise and premature wear won't be an issue. Used in Ford light duty pickup trucks 1980-83. So are the types of rear axles available (9-inch Ford shown here). Most of the formulas dealing with gear ratios will want a tire diameter (measured in inches). Find out why the 2018 Ford Explorer is rated 6. com: ford 9 inch differential parts. 6 Curb Weight 2,059lbs Cargo Volume 27. Power is transmitted from the transmission to rear end 1:1 in high gear. Has removable pinion support on the front. The following chart lists the Body Serial Codes, Body Style Codes and the model. Real F150 Owners Towing 5th Wheel. The number of times the driveshaft rotates equals the gear ratio. For example, if your Ford car or truck has a ring gear with 38 teeth, and the pinion gear has 10 teeth, the gear ratio is 3. 2 has a smooth, round lower case area, with an 11-inch cover that has a diagonal indentation at the top or a 10 5/8-inch irregular-shaped cover. Introduction. The GM 10-bolt (8. All third members come with a new housing gasket, and all trac-lok units come with a friction modifier. 00 as this is the typical 4th gear ratio of most 4 sp and 5 sp manual transmissions. The T-9 is arguably the most prolific and longest serving mass produced transmission. Ford 9 inch Moser 9 inch (Gen 3 and 4) Ford 9 inch swap into a Third Generation Chevy Camaro: Kits available to bolt right in with spring pads, torque arm mount as well as control arms and panhard rod. So are the types of rear axles available (9-inch Ford shown here). The BoxWrench Engine Specs Database is a community resource for mechanics of all skill levels to access a reference library of Firing Orders, Distributor Rotation Directions and Block-Cylinder Numbering as well as Torque Specs, Timing Settings and Cylinder Head Tightening Sequences among other engine specs. Fuel economy suffers the higher it goes. The axles on a Dana 50 taper from 1. 384 is not the widest in the business—not by a. Trailer Weight Rating Total Front Rear Front Rear STD CAB - 8' Box, 4x2 3. See the Gear Ratio calculator in the Spicer Tool Kit to determine your ratio. Teeth, Driving Gear No. Technical manuals and other useful information is available on the Hewland site as well as on the Classic Formula Ford (UK) web site. Contact us for service and repair, parts sales, professional consultation, gearbox installation work and design engineering for your Hewland requirements. 8 Rear-End; How to Narrow a Ford 8. 8" Rear End 3. 56:1 Ratio, Standard Ring. gear ratio calculation. Ford Lightning History The First Generation 1993 1994 1995. This chart has been revised with actual ratios. Ford Transmission Dimensions Dimension "C" is the distance from the bellhousing to the center of the transmission mounting pad. To support the greater weight, the Ram Heavy Duty's front drive shafts and U-joints are larger, and the Ram 3500 has a 11. 50 ratio, but followed by that are the numbers 8. 78:1 (34 Bearing Surface 11-1/2 square inches. 02:1 first gear. Identify the gear ratio, the build date, the plant where it was assembled the work shift when it was assembled, and positraction source - if equipped. 5" axles are 28 spline axles. Go here for a list of available ratios you can purchase for the Ford 9 inch rear end:. 55 rear end the gross combined weight rating will either by 13,400 pounds (for limited models) or 15,500 pounds. 55:1 gear ratio you find in most automatic XJ Cherokee’s is perfect for the stock tire size or even a little bit larger. 2" uses a 1-1/8 inch socket on the nut and the 7. Here is an example tag of a 9 inch that isn't quite up to the full measure,it is a 3. 4 litre, overhead valve 8 cylinder with 2 valves per cylinder. 20 first gear ratio which is the same in the M21 is not that good for off the line acceleration. is there anything else I need in order to rebuild a. The Ford Maverick Page. 56) (see more formulas at bottom of page) The below table can be used to get a rough idea on gear ratios. These converters are just the ticket for high horsepower street application provided you have proper cooling and gear ratio. com checks with auto manufacturers and their representatives to confirm the accuracy of the data, it makes no guarantee or warranty, either expressed or implied with respect to the data presented here. Listed are the expected RPM's at 60 MPH with a given rear end ratio and tire height. : this calculator allows you to enter 3 of four variables and it will compute the other based on your input. while the 427, 428 and 429 were available only with close ratio gears. Ford Harley Davidson Package only. The first car to enjoy the now 289 was the Ford Mustang. Teeth, Driving Gear No. 64-78 Ranchero Ford 8 in. Good "rule of thumb" calculation is to mutiply. Today, gearing choices are incredibly wide. Rear Flange Thickness 3/8". While the 8. Free Same Day Store Pickup. Transmission gear ratio (1st) 4. So in order to get cars moving with 3. 5-inch rearend was used on vehicles up to 1999, The 8. 4-speed automatic O/D All Dimensions are in inches unless otherwise noted. As you increase the size of the tires you effectively raise your gear ratio. You can mark the driveshaft to help you count. All 1979-1985 Mustangs featured the 7. Torque rating remained the same at 265ft/lbs. The 9 inch rear has become pervasive in the performance market that Strange has helped build for over 50 years. 2L engine. Note that there are two ways of entering the tire size. IS-1850-0126 Page 1 of 4. TO USE THESE CHARTS The GCWR column shows the maximum allowable combined weight of vehicle, trailer and cargo (including passengers) for this. Gearing charts such as this can help you select the right ring and pinion for your application by matching up tire size, the gear ratio, and engine rpm. 75 Diff and an 8. GM’s goal with the Muncie four-speed was to produce a better shift employing larger synchro cones. Gear Ratio & Tire Size Chart. The five-speed Ford Type 9 gearbox was the first 5 speed transmission fitted to production Ford RWD vehicles. ) Tire Height - Please use Inches when measuring; Speedo Revolutions Per Mile - The number of RPM's the speedometer needs to turn at 60mph. I've tried to cobble everything back together since the original entries were lost. 8" air locker for your 31 spline axle for all gear ratios,. You can also now calculate when using different transmission gear ratios, like in first gear or in overdrive. this means that dimension "C" is usually longer than dimension "B". From the factory, these housings were typically stuffed with the popular 3. 8-inch rear axle found under zillions of 5. 156-inch wall 4-link bars, an adjustable, urethane-bushed, low roll-center Panhard bar (1-inch od X. Vintage Mustang Forums > General Discussion > Vintage Mustang Forum > Gear Ratio For 8" Rear End is no such gear as a 3. Gear ratio has a large effect on mpg. 5 rear end or the Ford Mustang 8. Mustang Rear Gear Ratios Overview. ) Transmission Gear Ratio: to 1. Axle Model and get Free Shipping on Orders Over $99 at Summit Racing! Charts & Guides 4. Choosing the correct gear ratio is critical to maximizing performance, efficiency, and drivability for a wide range of vehicles operating even under the most extreme conditions. If you have a 4 wheel drive or an AWD you MUST match the ratios front and back. The Ford Mustang GT's engine is a naturally aspirated petrol, 4. Axle Model and get Free Shipping on Orders Over $99 at Summit Racing!. To help determine the driven gear needed for either drive gear based on rear gear ratio and tire diameter, try here. SVL 2020615 Differential Ring and Pinion Gear Set for Ford 9", 4. 50 3,700 3,900 9,850 4,770. The accompanying charts show what gears were manufactured for each type transmission. The housing itself is roughly 11 inches across. anyone running either gears with similar setup or have two cents. From stock Trac Loc posi, to full-spool, all-out race third members, 8 and 9 Inch Ford Rears will build your custom built Ford 9 inch rear end with experience and only the highest quality parts available. The Ford Mustang GT's engine is a naturally aspirated petrol, 4. 8" rear Trac Loc Limited Slip for The ARB Ford 8. 23 to one, 3. Richmond Gear is the leading manufacturer of professional quality, high-performance drivetrain products. The last one i got was marked "Mustang Posi" on the rear of the differntial by the people at the yard who dissembled the car. These measurements are from flange to flange. The step up or down in gear ratios may seem incremental but the difference is noticeable when driving and at the fuel pump. 25" Ring Gear Diameter: 8. Mark Williams Enterprises is an industry leading manufacturer of drag race axles, drive shafts, brakes, modular rears, rear end housings, thirdmembers, and chassis components. 5-inch rearend was used on vehicles up to 1999, The 8. 31 ratio, but also had options for 3. Ya an overdrive with these high of gears would be useless but since the final gear is just a 1:1 then I will be fine. 73 and DOWN ratio gears with 1. Prices and availability are subject to change without notice. GBT9150 Ford Sierra Type 9 5 speed gearbox std ratios (outright) A fully reconditioned gearbox. Axles were similar to the Ford 9-inch 28-spline units. The Ford Galaxie 500's engine is a naturally aspirated petrol, 6. 5" (after the size of the ring gear in inches) or just simply the "14b" for short. 8" gears, off-road ring and pinions, ring and pinion gear sets, master install kits, pinion kits, mini install kits, axles, ujoints, bearings, air lockers, triple drilled flange, diff housings, solid spacers and other Ford performance parts and accessories for your 8. A wide range of gear ratios is available, from 3. This is what we ran on 3\8 tracks. Condition New Location Rear. However, the overall span of 7. This is useful as many Jeep enthusiasts do not want to lose the roadability of their vehicles. 0L POWER STROKE V6 TURBO DIESEL. Well I found part of the differential's ID tag on the ground a while back and this is what was written on it. It may add up on paper but it doesn't translate properly in the real world. 5 towing 10k. 2013 FORD MUSTANG GT TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS DRIVETRAIN Layout Rear-wheel drive (limited -slip differential) TRANSMISSION Standard Six -speed manual with Hill Start Assist Gear ratios First 3. Ford 9" Assembly Transfer Case Dana 44 Axle. 8-inch differential is common across all of the ring-and-pinion ratios. Must have a usable Case, mainshaft, Input & cluster gear for a full core refund : Performance Upgrades Auto Gear : Super Case Upgrade 7/8" or 1" Pin Auto Gear: $310. When you increase the tire size without changing the gear ratio you increase fuel consumption and you can not drive at the low speeds needed for the off roads. from VARIOUS websites. This Final Drive number is also your torque multiplier when in that gear. 25 inches 71-73 Mustang 61. ford driveshaft. Since 1988, MBR have provided Hewland driveline solutions for current and vintage applications. 1996 Ford Mustang GT: The Ford Mustang GT is a 2 door coupé style car with a front positioned engine powering the rear wheels. 7854 x 8 = 301. With the availability of practically "everywhere", high support, and ease of mod, it is no surprise why people are turning to the Ford 8. you get what you pay for. Take a look at the gear ratio chart and think compare it to your current setup and think about where you want the change to occur. Rear Axle Identification. Ford eight and nine-inch rear ends are common, as are quick-change setups, vintage banjo housings and of course, Chevys, Mopar, Dana and even vintage rears. Use these gear ratio calculators to custom tailor Richmond Gear products to your vehicle. The following is a general list of rear ends and their dimensions to help narrow the search for a possible candidate to replace the torque tube rear end or just get a better set of gears for highway driving. Removable Carrier Axle-Ford ID tag. Dana axles normally have a tag on the left of the diff cover with the gear ratio at the time of build. A gear is made up of toothed wheels ("teeth") connected to shafts. 76:1 gear ratio that’s ideal for today’s big-cubic-inch motors. Real F150 Owners Towing 5th Wheel. Divide the ring gear teeth number by the number of teeth on the pinion. you get what you pay for. 2014 FORD F-150 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CONVENTIONAL TOWING – MAXIMUM LOADED TRAILER WEIGHT RATINGS (pounds) Regular SuperCab SuperCrew 126 -in. 10, giving you the 4. The heavy duty T5Z has a cluster gear reinforcing plate and stronger fifth gear to meet the needs of customers whose street or track use requires a T5 with higher HP capacity and a close ratio fifth gear that can be used for acceleration rather than just highway economy cruising. Access Optimum Transmission Gear Ratios Calculator RICHMOND is the leading manufacturer of professional quality, hi-performance ring and pinion sets. Ford Mustang 64½ General Specifications including the Ford 65-66 V8 Service Interval & Lubrication Card and the Ford Mustang 65-68 Tune-Up and Wheel Alignment Chart. In mechanical engineering, a gear ratio is a direct measure of the ratio of the rotational speeds of two or more interlocking gears. You don’t have to cut a hole in the floor, there is plenty of room, BUT you do have to cut about 4 or so inches out of the front part of the tranny crossmember mount NOT THE CROSSMEMBER!. Order Ford F150 Differential Rebuild Kit online today. This would have been a 28 spline unit when checked in manual. Note: Maximum loaded trailer weights shown. The key to identifying the 8. The driven gear is located in a removable housing usually in the tailhousing of the transmission. - Understand Gearing Ratios - How to: The driving force behind your RC vehicle Words: Erich Reichert Photos: Hope McCALL. The first axle is used on 4cyl and some 6cyl cars and is a 6 3/4" ring gear integral carrier axle. The gears of Dorman’s Differential Ring and Pinion are engineered to effectively transfer torque from the driveshaft. Mark Williams Enterprises is an industry leading manufacturer of drag race axles, drive shafts, brakes, modular rears, rear end housings, thirdmembers, and chassis components. I was just wondering which of those three would be the most feesable to adjust to bring the gear ratios up. If you live in Calif. you will be looking at a $2000 bill after all is said and done. 08 3800 FORD REG 1991 19 3. Ford says the 2018 F-350 Super Duty 4x2 regular. About this Engine RPM / Tire Size chart: The following chart of Tire sizes and axle gear ratios are meant to give a general idea of the relationship between the differential gear ratio and the tire size and what effect the ratio has on power output and fuel economy. 0L Power Stroke®. Get a great deal!. 73 gear ratio in a 7. Gear Trans Ratio Final Ratio 1000 RPM 1500 RPM 2000 RPM 2500 RPM 3000 RPM 3500 RPM 4000 RPM 4500 RPM 5000. 27) and somewhat weak 28-spline axles. Condition New Location Rear. Another factor to consider is that some ring gear bolts are left-hand thread. 55 3800 FORD REG 1991 25 4. 25-inch ring gear Ford Sterling debuted in semi or full-float version (full-float only on the diesels). This will put your gear ratio 1:1 gearing your car through the rearend insted of the trans. 73 gear up front, all will be fine as long as you remove the driveshaft or leave it in 2wd, once you put it in 4wd you will cause binding and break something. If you ordered four-wheel drive, it came with a BorgWarner 1345 transfer case. Simple guide to choosing the best diff gear ratios for your Jeep or 4x4 truck The correct chart for your gear ratio is important for drivability and economy. A guide to deciphering the rear axle code displayed on the VIN (warranty) tag of your 1973-1979 Ford truck. OIL COOLER LINES - S/S SPECIAL ORDER. 8-Inch is also used in other Ford products such as Ford Mustangs, Ford Thunderbirds, Ford Crown Victorias, and their equivalent Mercury and Lincoln products. Front; Ratio: 3. The first axle is used on 4cyl and some 6cyl cars and is a 6 3/4" ring gear integral carrier axle. What rear axle ratio would be best for a large 5th wheel camper cross country trip? The new Super Duty diesel comes with three rear axle ratios: 3. 73 gear ratio requires 3. Out on the west coast, a entrepreneur happened to convince Ford their new small block would be ideal to use in the AC Bristol roadster. The Ford Maverick Page. They're tough, a variety of gear ratios are available, and they look good without all the brackets and bolts other rears have. 5" use ring gear bolts with a 5/8" head, so if someone has rebuilt the rearend with one of these kits the bolts will have smaller heads than the original bolts. As you’d expect, Ford’s new 10R80 10-speed automatic has a wide spread of ratios between first and tenth gear. 5 rear end or the Ford Mustang 8. 73 is a lower ratio (engine spins 3. Credit Company, Ford Europe operations include Ford Customer Service Division and 24 manufacturing facilities (16 wholly owned or consolidated joint venture facilities and eight unconsolidated joint venture facilities). We have developed this chart to help you select the optimum gear ratio to put your performance back where you want it. Ford non-overdrive transmissions include:. 4 litre, overhead valve 8 cylinder with 2 valves per cylinder. We experiment with our gear ratio all the time and have come to the conclusion that our 44/16 ratio (2. 9 Inch Banjo Differential and Rear Axle. 8 out of a v8 all wheel drive explorer/mountaineer will have the gear ratio of 4. Some people trash talk the GM 10-bolt as a junk rear end, and if they are talking about the 8. indd 1 6/22/17 12:56 PM. 1 Wagon, Fairmont 4. 8-inch rear axle found under zillions of 5. FLYWHEEL RING GEARS PVT. It was first used in model year 1983 Ford trucks. A chart showing optimal gear ratios for lifted vehicles with larger tires to obtain the best power ratio. For 1966, Thunderbird's 390 engine got an increase in horsepower to 315. The driven gear clips onto the end of the speed cable. Check out the latest info for the 2011 Ford F-Series Super. 80 for the manual; You know the ring gear and pinion gear ratio. 73 driveshaft rotations to turn your tires once around. Ford 8 and 9 Inch Rear Ends: Complete - Ready to Run - Drop out third members for Ford rear ends: New Timken bearings, Yukon Gear ring and pinion gears: Ratios for every need, whether it's for street, highway, circle track or towing : Third members for any Ford or Mercury using a removable carrier. Conduct the 10 mile test, remove driven gear (the gear that spins your cable), count the teeth, and then multiply the teeth times the subtraction answer from the test. 0 out of 5. The BoxWrench Engine Specs Database is a community resource for mechanics of all skill levels to access a reference library of Firing Orders, Distributor Rotation Directions and Block-Cylinder Numbering as well as Torque Specs, Timing Settings and Cylinder Head Tightening Sequences among other engine specs. This results in a. It was optional on the 8-3/4" axles, 1958-1974. The combined weight of the towing vehicle (including hitch, passenger, cargo) and the loaded trailer must not exceed the Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR). I found out very quickly that he cost of custom Ford 8. 5” 10-bolt is actually just as strong as a 12-bolt or Ford 9-inch rear, with only a fraction of an inch difference in the ring-gear diameter. However, the overall span of 7. These calculators are designed to give the approximate engine RPM (revolutions per minute) based on the ring gear and pinion gear ratio, the height of the tires (diameter from ground to top of the tire while mounted on the vehicle) and the transmission final gear ratio. Wake up your 1979-1993 Mustang with a set of rear end gears. The most popular rear end around is no doubt the Ford 9 inch unit, it is used by restorers, street rodders and racers alike, regardless of what brand of car the axle is going in. The gears of Dorman’s Differential Ring and Pinion are engineered to effectively transfer torque from the driveshaft. Enter your values on the left side, press Compute and your answer will be on the right. Synchronized in all forward speeds with 4th being overdrive. Try our gear ratio calculators here. All Explorer are 31 spline 8. 8-inch rear axle found under zillions of 5. Nov 22, 2013 · Mustang Rear End Gear Installation: Ford Racing 8. 25's were reserved for single rear wheel (SRW) applications, where the larger 80 was used in all duallies (DRW). RATIO CHARTS. 1990 to 1993 the stock Ford production V-8 WC T-5 was upgraded with stronger 3. 55 rear end the gross combined weight rating will either by 13,400 pounds (for limited models) or 15,500 pounds. The 2017 Ford GT 350 has a 5. 8:1 (38/10). 7 by The Car Connection experts. So, let’s use this to figure out the displacement of a Ford engine that has a 4-inch Bore and a. Select your Ford differential from the list below to find parts for your car or truck Quality & Customer Service Distributor Support Warranty Info About Yukon Calculators Product Sheets Y. 88 rear end gears, cars that had engines with decent amounts of low end torque had "close ratio" transmissions with 2. GM’s goal with the Muncie four-speed was to produce a better shift employing larger synchro cones. That is why a GM 10. 8-inch differential is common across all of the ring-and-pinion ratios. By improving the surface area, the synchro slows the gear faster making for smoother shifts. You can use it to try out different rear end gears and tire sizes. 5" -1970-Present Car, 1977-99 Truck (C-Clip Axles) Ring Gear Diameter: 8. But if there are no horizontal shocks then more then likely it is the 7. The stock 3. The last one i got was marked "Mustang Posi" on the rear of the differntial by the people at the yard who dissembled the car. 8 31 Spline Gives you a fully locking differential while retaining your original standard open case. 8" air locker for your 31 spline axle for all gear ratios,. To find the gear ratio, read the 2nd caption. Order Ford F150 Differential Rebuild Kit online today. i was thinking of swapping out to 3. 6 V8 Coupe has a naturally-aspirated V 8 cylinder engine, Petrol motor. Oversized tires require higher ring & pinion ratios to restore performance. By choosing a higher gear ratio, you increase acceleration and performance. 45 ratio, going to a lower (numerically higher) ring and pinion gear must use the appropriate housing. The last Ford 9-inch rear to be installed in a passenger car was 1980. Gear ratios:. i have my 62 falcon about buttoned up. 66 Second 2. Techline (586) 468-1356. Skip to main content. The 1-1/16" input transmissions are available in both close and wide gear ratios. Does any one have any back on the gas mileage for the above configurations. 5 liter EcoBoost, 145 inch wheelbase, and 3. Enter the motor speed in RPMs. Look at the final drive ratios for each gear. Chart showing transmissions offered and gear ratios. 8 diff? You should have an 8. The front Dana44 TTB axle should be open with 3. TO USE THESE CHARTS The GCWR column shows the maximum allowable combined weight of vehicle, trailer and cargo (including passengers) for this. LTD (FRGPL) specializes in manufacturing Starter Ring Gears. 55, but i'm thinking i'm gonna regret not running 3. 73's with an eight-tooth drive, and the highest driven gear with twenty-three (23) teeth, the speedometer still reads 5% fast. 25 inches 71-73 Mustang 61. Although the 8. It is 248 on a Dana 60. 55 rear end the gross combined weight rating will either by 13,400 pounds (for limited models) or 15,500 pounds. Rpm: Tire Diameter in inches: (use the diameter of the tire that puts power to the ground) Primary Gear Reduction Ratio: to 1 (If you are not sure what this is, make it 1. Adding a new gear set will put you back in your seat when you hit the throttle and it will let you get over tougher terrain than before. 5-inch and 8. Understanding your vehicle’s gear ratio is a powerful tool when making changes at the track or around the. 8-inch differential primarily for its trucks, sport utility vehicles and vans, but some mid- and full-size Mercury cars also featured the equipment. Teeth, Driving Gear No. 6:1 compression and 162 hp Four barrel carburetor with 8. 5 and not an 8. AG-4210 -B-"C" Ford 10X37. CLICK ON A LINK ABOVE FOR MORE GEARBOX INFORMATION. Front; Ratio: 3. The V10 needs to get above 2100 rpm to get better mileage. 76" - GM #3708145. The GM 10-bolt (8. The engine is connected to the gearbox, the gearbox, via the tail shaft to the differential, and the differential via the axles to the wheels. 5-inch rearend was used on vehicles up to 1999, The 8. The numbers can be deceiving in that a high gear ratio has a low number, and a lower gear ratio has a higher number. So, let’s use this to figure out the displacement of a Ford engine that has a 4-inch Bore and a. Turn the ring gear one way and then. indd 1 6/22/17 12:56 PM. For example, if your Ford car or truck has a ring gear with 38 teeth, and the pinion gear has 10 teeth, the gear ratio is 3. 25 inches 67-70 Mustang 59. Here is a list of rear ends that I picked up some time ago on the Fordnatics mailing list. Real F150 Owners Towing 5th Wheel. 79 ratio and tag code of WBW K1 pumpkin casting. A web based calculator to help you pick the right size tires, wheels, rear end, gear ratio and transmission for your 55-57 Chevrolet. in highest gear. 5" use a 1-1/4 inch. The Ford powertrain team designed, engineered, built and torture-tested it themselves. Axles were similar to the Ford 9-inch 28-spline units. 4375 inches while the crankshaft stroke is 3.